Is Myopia Associated with the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy?
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the association of refractive error and its associated determinants (axial length [AL], anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature) with the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1562 eyes of 840 individuals with diabetes and gradable retinal photographs (mean age [SD], 57.0 [8.3] years, 48.2% female) from the Singapore Malay and Indian Eye Studies at baseline (2004-2009) and follow-up (2011-2015) examinations were included in the analyses. Refractive error was calculated as sphere plus half negative cylinder, while AL, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature were assessed using optical biometry. Incident DR was defined as having no baseline DR and any DR at follow-up; incident vision-threatening DR as no baseline vision-threatening DR but present at follow-up; and DR progression as an increase in severity at follow-up from at least minimal baseline DR. Eye-specific data and generalized estimating equation models were used to account for between-eye correlation to determine the relationships between the exposures and outcomes, adjusted for traditional DR risk factors. RESULTS: At follow-up, 164 of 1273 (12.9%) eyes had incident DR, 17 of 1542 (1.1%) eyes had incident vision-threatening DR, and 75 of 269 (27.9%) eyes with baseline DR experienced progression. A longer AL (per millimeter increase) (risk ratio 0.58 [95% confidence interval 0.38-0.88) was associated with a lower risk of incident DR. No other associations were found. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that a longer AL is protective of incident DR.
Man, REK; Gan, ATL; Gupta, P; Fenwick, EK; Sabanayagam, C; Tan, NYQ; Mitchell, P; Wong, TY; Cheng, C-Y; Lamoureux, EL
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