Physiologic Effects of Noninvasive Ventilation.
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has a number of physiologic effects similar to invasive ventilation. The major effects are to augment minute ventilation and reduce muscle loading. These effects, in turn, can have profound effects on the patient's ventilator control system, both acutely and chronically. Because NIV can be supplied with PEEP, the maintenance of alveolar recruitment is also made possible and the triggering load imposed by auto-PEEP can be reduced. NIV (or simply mask CPAP) can maintain upper-airway patency during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. NIV can have multiple effects on cardiac function. By reducing venous return, it can help in patients with heart failure or fluid overload, but it can compromise cardiac output in others. NIV can also increase right ventricular afterload or function to reduce left ventricular afterload. Potential detrimental physiologic effects of NIV are ventilator-induced lung injury, auto-PEEP development, and discomfort/muscle overload from poor patient-ventilator interactions.
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