Mutational landscape in genetically engineered, carcinogen-induced, and radiation-induced mouse sarcoma.
Cancer development is influenced by hereditary mutations, somatic mutations due to random errors in DNA replication, or external factors. It remains unclear how distinct cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors impact oncogenesis within the same tissue type. We investigated murine soft tissue sarcomas generated by oncogenic alterations (KrasG12D activation and p53 deletion), carcinogens (3-methylcholanthrene [MCA] or ionizing radiation), and in a novel model combining both factors (MCA plus p53 deletion). Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated distinct mutational signatures in individual sarcoma cohorts. MCA-induced sarcomas exhibited high mutational burden and predominantly G-to-T transversions, while radiation-induced sarcomas exhibited low mutational burden and a distinct genetic signature characterized by C-to-T transitions. The indel to substitution ratio and amount of gene copy number variations were high for radiation-induced sarcomas. MCA-induced tumors generated on a p53-deficient background showed the highest genomic instability. MCA-induced sarcomas harbored mutations in putative cancer-driver genes that regulate MAPK signaling (Kras and Nf1) and the Hippo pathway (Fat1 and Fat4). In contrast, radiation-induced sarcomas and KrasG12Dp53-/- sarcomas did not harbor recurrent oncogenic mutations, rather they exhibited amplifications of specific oncogenes: Kras and Myc in KrasG12Dp53-/- sarcomas, and Met and Yap1 for radiation-induced sarcomas. These results reveal that different initiating events drive oncogenesis through distinct mechanisms.
Lee, C-L; Mowery, YM; Daniel, AR; Zhang, D; Sibley, AB; Delaney, JR; Wisdom, AJ; Qin, X; Wang, X; Caraballo, I; Gresham, J; Luo, L; Van Mater, D; Owzar, K; Kirsch, DG
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