Pharmacodynamic study of radium-223 in men with bone metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: Radium-223 is a targeted alpha-particle therapy that improves survival in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), particularly in men with elevated serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP). We hypothesized that osteomimicry, a form of epithelial plasticity leading to an osteoblastic phenotype, may contribute to intralesional deposition of radium-223 and subsequent irradiation of the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: We conducted a pharmacodynamic study (NCT02204943) of radium-223 in men with bone mCRPC. Prior to and three and six months after radium-223 treatment initiation, we collected CTCs and metastatic biopsies for phenotypic characterization and CTC genomic analysis. The primary objective was to describe the impact of radium-223 on the prevalence of CTC B-ALP over time. We measured radium-223 decay products in tumor and surrounding normal bone during treatment. We validated genomic findings in a separate independent study of men with bone metastatic mCRPC (n = 45) and publicly accessible data of metastatic CRPC tissues. RESULTS: We enrolled 20 men with symptomatic bone predominant mCRPC and treated with radium-223. We observed greater radium-223 radioactivity levels in metastatic bone tumor containing biopsies compared with adjacent normal bone. We found evidence of persistent Cellsearch CTCs and B-ALP (+) CTCs in the majority of men over time during radium-223 therapy despite serum B-ALP normalization. We identified genomic gains in osteoblast mimicry genes including gains of ALPL, osteopontin, SPARC, OB-cadherin and loss of RUNX2, and validated genomic alterations or increased expression at the DNA and RNA level in an independent cohort of 45 men with bone-metastatic CRPC and in 150 metastatic biopsies from men with mCRPC. CONCLUSIONS: Osteomimicry may contribute in part to the uptake of radium-223 within bone metastases and may thereby enhance the therapeutic benefit of this bone targeting radiotherapy.
Armstrong, AJ; Gupta, S; Healy, P; Kemeny, G; Leith, B; Zalutsky, MR; Spritzer, C; Davies, C; Rothwell, C; Ware, K; Somarelli, JA; Wood, K; Ribar, T; Giannakakou, P; Zhang, J; Gerber, D; Anand, M; Foo, W-C; Halabi, S; Gregory, SG; George, DJ
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