Decline in Racial Disparities in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis from 1998 to 2014.
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing emphasis on reducing racial disparities in breast cancer care in the United States, it remains unknown whether access to breast reconstruction has improved over time. The authors characterized contemporary patterns of breast reconstruction by race and ethnicity. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women undergoing mastectomy for stage 0 to III breast cancer from 1998 to 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association of demographic factors with likelihood of postmastectomy reconstruction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict reconstruction subtype. Patients undergoing reconstruction were grouped by diagnosis year to assess change in the population over time by race and ethnicity. RESULTS: Of 346,418 patients, 21.8 percent underwent immediate reconstruction. Non-Hispanic black race (OR, 0.71) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 0.63) were associated with a decreased likelihood of reconstruction (all p < 0.001). Race was predictive of reconstruction type, with non-Hispanic black (OR, 1.52) and Hispanic women (OR, 1.22) more likely to undergo autologous versus implant-based reconstruction (p < 0.001). Although rates of reconstruction increased over time across all races, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic patients had a higher adjusted per-year increase in rate of reconstruction compared with non-Hispanic white patients (interaction p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of postmastectomy reconstruction have increased more quickly over time for minority women compared with white women, suggesting that racial disparities in breast reconstruction may be improving. However, race continues to be associated with differences in types and rates of reconstruction. Further research is necessary to continue to improve access to breast reconstruction in the United States. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.
Sergesketter, AR; Thomas, SM; Lane, WO; Orr, JP; Shammas, RL; Fayanju, OM; Greenup, RA; Hollenbeck, ST
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