Myocardial Involvement in Patients With Histologically Diagnosed Cardiac Sarcoidosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Gross Pathological Images From Autopsy or Cardiac Transplantation Cases.
(Journal Article;Systematic Review)
Background In patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis, late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and/or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography are often used to reach a clinical diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. On the basis of data from the imaging literature of clinical cardiac sarcoidosis, no specific features of myocardial involvement are regarded as pathognomonic for cardiac sarcoidosis. Thus, a diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is challenging to make. There has been no systematic analysis of histologically diagnosed cardiac sarcoidosis for patterns of myocardial involvement. We hypothesized that certain patterns of myocardial involvement are more frequent in histologically diagnosed cardiac sarcoidosis. Methods and Results We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of gross pathological images from the published literature of patients with histologically diagnosed cardiac sarcoidosis who underwent autopsy or cardiac transplantation. Thirty-three eligible articles provided images of 49 unique hearts. Analysis of these hearts revealed certain features of myocardial involvement in >90% of cases: left ventricular (LV) subepicardial, LV multifocal, septal, and right ventricular free wall involvement. In contrast, other patterns were seen in 0% to 6% of cases: absence of gross LV myocardial involvement, isolated LV midmyocardial involvement, isolated LV subendocardial involvement, isolated LV transmural involvement, absence of septal involvement, or isolated involvement of only one LV level. Conclusions In this systematic review and meta-analysis of histologically diagnosed cardiac sarcoidosis, we identified certain features of myocardial involvement that occurred frequently and others that occurred rarely or never. These patterns could aid the interpretation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography imaging and improve the diagnosis and the prognostication of patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis.
Okasha, O; Kazmirczak, F; Chen, K-HA; Farzaneh-Far, A; Shenoy, C
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