Safety of Nivolumab plus Low-Dose Ipilimumab in Previously Treated Microsatellite Instability-High/Mismatch Repair-Deficient Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
BACKGROUND: Early detection and management of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors may improve outcomes. In CheckMate 142, nivolumab (3 mg/kg) plus low-dose ipilimumab (1 mg/kg) provided durable clinical benefit (objective response rate [ORR] 55%, median duration of response not reached, 12-month overall survival [OS] rate 85%) and manageable safety for previously treated microsatellite instability-high and/or mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In-depth safety and additional efficacy outcomes from CheckMate 142 are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Safety assessments included frequency of TRAEs, select TRAEs (sTRAEs), and immune-mediated adverse event incidences; time to onset (TTO); time to resolution (TTR); immune-modulating medication (IMM) use; dose delay; and sTRAE occurrence after resuming therapy. Efficacy assessments included ORR and survival analyses in patients with sTRAEs with or without concomitant IMM treatment and patients without sTRAEs. RESULTS: Among 119 patients, 25%, 23%, 19%, 5%, 5%, and 29% experienced an endocrine, gastrointestinal, hepatic, pulmonary, renal, or skin sTRAE, respectively; the majority (57%) were grade 1/2. sTRAEs occurred early (median TTO, 5.2-12.6 weeks). Nonendocrine sTRAEs resolved in most (>71%) patients (median TTR, 1.5-9.0 weeks). IMMs were used to manage sTRAEs in 22%-56% of patients (most resolved). Of patients with dose delay because of sTRAEs, 25 of 29 resumed treatment. Patients with or without sTRAEs had comparable ORR (57% vs. 52%) and 12-month OS rates (93% vs. 75%). Similar results were observed in patients with or without sTRAEs regardless of IMM use (ORR 52% vs. 57%; OS rates 87% vs. 82%). CONCLUSION: The benefit-risk profile of nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab provides a promising treatment option for patients with previously treated MSI-H/dMMR mCRC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nivolumab (NIVO) plus low-dose (1 mg/kg) ipilimumab (IPI) received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for patients with microsatellite instability-high and/or mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that progressed following treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan based on results from CheckMate 142. In this safety analysis, the majority of select treatment-related adverse events (sTRAEs) occurred early, were managed using evidence-based treatment algorithms, and resolved. Efficacy outcomes were comparable between patients with or without sTRAEs regardless of the use of concomitant immune-modulating medications. The benefit-risk profile of NIVO + low-dose IPI provides a promising treatment option for MSI-H/dMMR mCRC.
Morse, MA; Overman, MJ; Hartman, L; Khoukaz, T; Brutcher, E; Lenz, H-J; Atasoy, A; Shangguan, T; Zhao, H; El-Rayes, B
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