National Imaging and Antibiotic Practice Patterns in Children Presenting With Urinary Tract Infection to Community Practices: Little Impact From the American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines?
Our objective was to use community-based, national databases to evaluate diagnostic imaging and antibiotic prophylaxis practice patterns before and after the release of the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for acute febrile urinary tract infection. Using the National Ambulatory and Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, urinary tract infection encounters were identified for patients aged 2 months to 18 years. Primary outcomes were utilization of antibiotics (as proxy for prophylaxis) and diagnostic imaging during encounters. Weighted multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between time period (before and after 2011) and each of the primary outcomes. Among 8 588 035 weighted encounters, adjusting for covariates, there was insufficient evidence to suggest a difference between time periods for antibiotic utilization (odds ratio = 0.66, P = .12) or diagnostic imaging (odds ratio = 1.16, P = .56). Thus, we did not find evidence of changes in antibiotic utilization or diagnostic imaging practice patterns after the release of the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines.
Inouye, BM; Dionise, ZR; Jiang, R; Wolf, S; Nicholl, L; Pomann, G-M; Wiener, JS; Purves, JT; Routh, JC
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