Racial differences in long-term outcomes among black and white patients with drug-eluting stents.
BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that black patients may have worse outcomes after drug-eluting stent (DES) placement. There are limited data characterizing long-term outcomes by race. The objective was to compare long-term outcomes between black and white patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES implantation. METHODS: We analyzed 915 black and 3,559 white (n = 4,474) consecutive patients who underwent DES placement at Duke University Medical Center from 2005 through 2013. Over 6-year follow up, we compared rates of myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, revascularization, and major bleeding between black and white patients. A multivariable Cox regression model was fit to adjust for potentially confounding variables. Dual-antiplatelet therapy use over time was determined by patient follow-up surveys and compared by race. RESULTS: Black patients were younger; were more often female; had higher body mass indexes; had more diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal disease; and had lower median household incomes than white patients (P < .001). At 6 years after DES placement, black relative to white patients had higher unadjusted rates of MI (12.1% vs 10.1%, hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.57, P = .05) and major bleeding (17.8% vs 14.3%, hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54, P = .01), but there were no significant differences in other outcomes. After multivariable adjustment, there were no statistically significant racial differences in any of these outcomes at 6 years. Similarly, dual-antiplatelet therapy use was comparable between racial groups. CONCLUSIONS: Unadjusted rates of MI and major bleeding over long-term follow up were higher among black patients compared to white patients, but these differences may be explained by racial differences in comorbid disease.
Sullivan, LT; Mulder, H; Chiswell, K; Shaw, LK; Wang, TY; Jackson, LR; Thomas, KL
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