The past, present, and future of costimulation blockade in organ transplantation.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Manipulating costimulatory signals has been shown to alter T cell responses and prolong graft survival in solid organ transplantation. Our understanding of and ability to target various costimulation pathways continues to evolve. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the approval of belatacept in kidney transplantation, many additional biologics have been developed targeting clinically relevant costimulation signaling axes including CD40-CD40L, inducible costimulator-inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS-ICOSL), and OX40-OX40L. Currently, the effects of costimulation blockade on posttransplant humoral responses, tolerance induction, and xenotransplantation are under active investigation. Here, we will discuss these pathways as well as preclinical and clinical outcomes of biologics targeting these pathways in organ transplantation. SUMMARY: Targeting costimultion is a promising approach for not only controlling T cell but also B cell responses. Consequently, costimulation blockade shows considerable potential for improving outcomes in antibody-mediated rejection and xenotransplantation.
Schroder, PM; Fitch, ZW; Schmitz, R; Choi, AY; Kwun, J; Knechtle, SJ
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