Determining changes in bone metabolism after bariatric surgery in postmenopausal women.
BACKGROUND: Accelerated bone loss is a known complication after bariatric surgery. Bone mineral density has been shown to decrease significantly after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) effects on bone density are largely unknown. This should be considered for those with increased preoperative risk for bone loss, such as postmenopausal females. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial included postmenopausal patients, with BMI ≥ 35 k/m2, being evaluated for either RYGB or SG. Patients with history of osteoporosis, estrogen hormone replacement therapy, active smoking, glucocorticoid use, or weight > 295 lb were excluded. Patients underwent DEXA scans preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively with measurement of total body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) as well as regional site-specific BMD and BMC. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were enrolled. 16 (57.1%) patients underwent RYGB and 12 (42.9%) patients underwent SG. Median preoperative BMI was 44.2 k/m2 (IQR 39.9, 46.6). Median change in BMI at 12 months was - 11.3 k/m2 (IQR - 12.8, - 7.9). A significant reduction in total body BMC was seen when comparing preoperative measurements to postoperative measurements (2358.32 vs 2280.68 grams; p = 0.002). Regional site BMC and BMD significantly decreased in the ribs and spine postoperatively (p = < 0.02) representing the greatest loss in the axial skeleton. Comparing those who underwent RYGB to SG there was no significant difference between the two groups when evaluating changes in total or regional site BMD. CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal women were found to have decreased BMD and BMC after RYGB and SG, suggesting that high-risk women may benefit from postoperative DEXA screening. Further study is needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings. It is unknown if these changes in BMD are due to modifiable factors (Vitamin D level, activity level, hormone status, etc.), and whether BMD and BMC is recovered beyond 1 year.
Luhrs, AR; Davalos, G; Lerebours, R; Yoo, J; Park, C; Tabone, L; Omotosho, P; Torquati, A; Portenier, D; Guerron, AD
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