Adaptive granularity encoding for energy-efficient non-volatile main memory
© 2019 Association for Computing Machinery. Data encoding methods have been proposed to alleviate the high write energy and limited write endurance disadvantages of Non- Volatile Memories (NVMs). Encoding methods are proved to be effective through theoretical analysis. Under the data patterns of workloads, existing encoding methods could become inefficient. We observe that the new cache line and the old cache line have many redundant (or unmodified) words. This makes the utilization ratio of the tag bits of data encoding methods become very low, and the efficiency of data encoding method decreases. To fully exploit the tag bits to reduce the bit flips of NVMs, we propose REdundant word Aware Data encoding (READ). The key idea of READ is to share the tag bits among all the words of the cache line and dynamically assign the tag bits to the modified words. The high utilization ratio of the tag bits in READ leads to heavy bit flips of the tag bits. To reduce the bit flips of the tag bits in READ, we further propose Sequential flips Aware Encoding (SAE). SAE is designed based on the observation that many sequential bits of the new data and the old data are opposite. For those writes, the bit flips of the tag bits will increase with the number of tag bits. SAE dynamically selects the encoding granularity which causes the minimum bit flips instead of using the minimum encoding granularity. Experimental results show that our schemes can reduce the energy consumption by 20.3%, decrease the bit flips by 25.0%, and improve the lifetime by 52.1%.
Xu, J; Feng, D; Hua, Y; Tong, W; Liu, J; Li, C; Xu, G; Chen, Y
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International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)
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