Predictors of target organ damage in hypertensive blacks and whites.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the insulin resistance syndrome with both blood pressure and target organ damage in blacks and whites with essential hypertension. Eighty-two black and 63 white French Canadian patients were studied. None had diabetes, and antihypertensive medications had been discontinued for >/=1 week. Measurements included 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, fasting plasma lipids, insulin sensitivity determined with the Bergman minimal model, echocardiogram, microalbumin excretion, and inulin and lithium clearances. Compared with the white French Canadians, black patients had an attenuated nighttime reduction in blood pressure (P<0.02), increased cardiac dimensions (P<0.001), greater microalbumin excretion (P<0.05), increased inulin clearance (indicative of glomerular hyperfiltration; P<0.001), and decreased lithium clearance (indicative of increased sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule; P<0.001). Blood pressure levels were not related to insulin resistance; although in blacks, the nighttime reduction in systolic blood pressure was inversely related to fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.04). In a stepwise multivariate analysis (including blood pressure levels and components of the insulin resistance syndrome as independent variables), race was the strongest predictor of left ventricular mass (r=0.53, P<0.000), relative wall thickness (r=0.49, P<0.000), and both inulin (r=0.53, P<0.000) and lithium (r=0.41, P<0.000) clearances. Nighttime systolic blood pressure was also a significant determinant of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (r=0.37, P<0.000). In blacks, microalbumin excretion was related to insulin resistance. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that there is a genetic contribution to cardiac hypertrophy, glomerular hyperfiltration, and sodium retention in blacks with essential hypertension.
El-Gharbawy, AH; Kotchen, JM; Grim, CE; Kaldunski, M; Hoffmann, RG; Pausova, Z; Gaudet, D; Gossard, F; Hamet, P; Kotchen, TA
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