Automatic IMRT planning via static field fluence prediction (AIP-SFFP): a deep learning algorithm for real-time prostate treatment planning.
The purpose of this work was to develop a deep learning (DL) based algorithm, Automatic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) Planning via Static Field Fluence Prediction (AIP-SFFP), for automated prostate IMRT planning with real-time planning efficiency. The following method was adopted: AIP-SFFP generates a prostate IMRT plan through predictions of fluence maps using patient anatomy. No inverse planning is required. AIP-SFFP is centered on a custom-built deep learning (DL) neural network for fluence map prediction. Predictions are imported to a commercial treatment-planning system for dose calculation and plan generation. AIP-SFFP was demonstrated for prostate IMRT simultaneously-integrated-boost planning (58.8 Gy/70 Gy to PTV58.8 Gy/PTV70 Gy in 28 fx, PTV = Planning Target Volume). Training data was generated from 106 patients using a knowledge-based planning (KBP) plan generator. Two types of 2D projection images were designed to represent structures' sizes and locations, and a total of eight projections were utilized to describe targets and organs-at-risk. Projections at nine template beam angles were stacked as inputs for artificial intelligence (AI) training. 14 patients were used as independent tests. The generated test plans were compared with the plans from the KBP training plan generator and clinic practice. The following results were obtained: After normalization (PTV70 Gy V70 Gy = 95%), all 14 AI plans met institutional criteria. The coverage of PTV58.8 Gy in the AI plans was comparable to KBP and clinic plans without statistical significance. The whole body (BODY) D1cc and rectum D0.1cc of AI plans were slightly higher (<1 Gy) compared to KBP and clinic plans; in contrast, the bladder D1cc and other rectum and bladder low doses in the AI plans were slightly improved without clinical relevance. The overall isodose distribution in the AI plans was comparable with KBP plans and clinical plans. AIP-SFFP generated each test plan within 20s including the prediction and the dose calculation. In conclusion, AIP-SFFP was successfully developed for prostate IMRT planning. AIP-SFFP demonstrated good overall plan quality and real-time efficiency. Showing great promise, AIP-SFFP will be investigated for immediate clinical application.
Li, X; Zhang, J; Sheng, Y; Chang, Y; Yin, F-F; Ge, Y; Wu, QJ; Wang, C
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