Critical care information display approaches and design frameworks: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Objective: To systematically review original user evaluations of patient information displays relevant to critical care and understand the impact of design frameworks and information presentation approaches on decision-making, efficiency, workload, and preferences of clinicians. Methods: We included studies that evaluated information displays designed to support real-time care decisions in critical care or anesthesiology using simulated tasks. We searched PubMed and IEEExplore from 1/1/1990 to 6/30/2018. The search strategy was developed iteratively with calibration against known references. Inclusion screening was completed independently by two authors. Extraction of display features, design processes, and evaluation method was completed by one and verified by a second author. Results: Fifty-six manuscripts evaluating 32 critical care and 22 anesthesia displays were included. Primary outcome metrics included clinician accuracy and efficiency in recognizing, diagnosing, and treating problems. Implementing user-centered design (UCD) processes, especially iterative evaluation and redesign, resulted in positive impact in outcomes such as accuracy and efficiency. Innovative display approaches that led to improved human-system performance in critical care included: (1) improving the integration and organization of information, (2) improving the representation of trend information, and (3) implementing graphical approaches to make relationships between data visible. Conclusion: Our review affirms the value of key principles of UCD. Improved information presentation can facilitate faster information interpretation and more accurate diagnoses and treatment. Improvements to information organization and support for rapid interpretation of time-based relationships between related quantitative data is warranted. Designers and developers are encouraged to involve users in formal iterative design and evaluation activities in the design of electronic health records (EHRs), clinical informatics applications, and clinical devices.
Wright, MC; Borbolla, D; Waller, RG; Del Fiol, G; Reese, T; Nesbitt, P; Segall, N
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