Lymphangitic carcinomatosis: A common radiographic manifestation of local failure following extended pleurectomy/decortication in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.
The lymphangitic carcinomatosis (LC) pattern of metastatic malignancy is associated with a poor prognosis but is currently not well defined in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we report the incidence and prognostic significance of the radiographic development of LC in MPM following extended pleurectomy/decortication (EPD).
Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven MPM undergoing EPD with intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) at our institution from 2008 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Patients without available post-surgical clinical or imaging data for direct review were excluded. CT images were reviewed by an experienced, board-certified thoracic radiologist and confirmed by consensus review. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated by Kaplan Meier methodology. Hazard ratios were compared with a cox proportional hazard model.
44 patients underwent EPD with PDT during the study period and had available clinical and imaging data. During the follow-up period (median 34 months), 17 patients (39%) developed LC at a median of 10 months after surgery (IQR 5-21 months). 16 of the 17 patients who developed LC (94%) died during the follow-up period, compared to 17 of the 27 who did not develop LC (63%). OS for the LC versus non-LC group was 53% versus 93% at 1 year and 18% versus 67% at 3 years. LC was significantly associated with a lower OS (HR 4.07; 95% confidence interval 1.44-11.48; p = 0.008). PFS for the LC group versus non-LC group was 8 months (IQR 5-9 months) compared to 17 months (IQR 11-24 months) (p < 0.001).
LC is a common form of failure in MPM following EPD and is associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, further studies are warranted to determine if any evidence of preoperative LC should be an absolute contraindication to EPD and may warrant an EPP or no surgery at all.
Berger, I; Cengel, KA; Simone, CB; Alley, EW; Roshkovan, L; Haas, AR; Patel, AM; Khalid, U; Culligan, MJ; McNulty, S; Singhal, S; Friedberg, JS; Katz, SI
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