Active thermal convection in vibrofluidized granular systems
We present a granular-hydrodynamic model that captures the essence of convection in a fully vibrofluidized granular system. The steady temperature distribution is solved analytically. Numerical simulation shows that the convection always develops through a supercritical bifurcation, with its energy about 5% of the random (heat) one. A comparison calculation is performed for a normal fluid. The convection roll, or an active roll as we call it, has an angular velocity gradient from its interior to exterior. We conclude that active rolls are universal.
Miao, G; Huang, K; Yun, Y; Wei, R
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