HLA class II-Restricted CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 Virus Controllers.
A paradigm shifting study demonstrated that induction of MHC class E and II-restricted CD8+ T cells was associated with the clearance of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Another recent study highlighted the presence of HIV-1-specific class II-restricted CD8+ T cells in HIV-1 patients who naturally control infection (virus controllers; VCs). However, questions regarding class II-restricted CD8+ T cells ontogeny, distribution across different HIV-1 disease states and their role in viral control remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the distribution and anti-viral properties of HLA-DRB1*0701 and DQB1*0501 class II-restricted CD8+ T cells in different HIV-1 patient cohorts; and whether class II-restricted CD8+ T cells represent a unique T cell subset. We show that memory class II-restricted CD8+ T cell responses were more often detectable in VCs than in chronically infected patients, but not in healthy seronegative donors. We also demonstrate that VC CD8+ T cells inhibit virus replication in both a class I- and class II-dependent manner, and that in two VC patients the class II-restricted CD8+ T cells with an anti-viral gene signature expressed both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lineage-specific genes. These data demonstrated that anti-viral memory class II-restricted CD8+ T cells with hybrid CD4+ and CD8+ features are present during natural HIV-1 infection.
Nyanhete, TE; Frisbee, AL; Bradley, T; Faison, WJ; Robins, E; Payne, T; Freel, SA; Sawant, S; Weinhold, KJ; Wiehe, K; Haynes, BF; Ferrari, G; Li, Q-J; Moody, MA; Tomaras, GD
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