Genetic deletion of p21WAF1 enhances papilloma formation but not malignant conversion in experimental mouse skin carcinogenesis.
Tumor suppression by p53 is believed to reside in its ability to regulate gene transcription, including up-regulation of p21WAF1. In p53(-/-) mice, chemical- or oncogene-induced skin tumors undergo accelerated malignant conversion. To determine the contribution of the p21WAF1 gene product to epidermal carcinogenesis, animals +/+, +/-, and -/- for a null mutation in the p21WAF1 gene were treated once with 25 nmol 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, followed by 5 microg of TPA two times/week for 20 weeks. Papilloma frequency was higher in the p21WAF1-deficient mice. However, the frequency of malignant conversion was similar among all three genotypes. After TPA treatment, all genotypes developed epidermal hyperplasia, although the labeling index was lower in p21WAF1 (-/-) epidermis compared with p21WAF1 (+/+). Furthermore, the expression of differentiation markers was the same across genotypes in untreated or TPA-treated epidermis. Similar frequencies of malignant conversion were also observed in an in vitro assay. Thus, p21WAF1 suppresses early stages of papilloma formation but not malignant progression in mouse skin carcinogenesis, and decreased levels of p21WAF1 do not account for the enhanced malignant conversion of p53 null epidermal tumors.
Weinberg, WC; Fernandez-Salas, E; Morgan, DL; Shalizi, A; Mirosh, E; Stanulis, E; Deng, C; Hennings, H; Yuspa, SH
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