AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee (AVRS) Consultation: Early-Life Immunization Strategies against HIV Acquisition.
This report summarizes a consultation meeting convened by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), on 12 September 2017 to discuss the scientific rationale for selectively testing relevant HIV vaccine candidates in early life that are designed to initiate immune responses for lifelong protective immunity. The urgent need to develop interventions providing durable protective immunity to HIV before sexual debut coupled with the practicality of infant vaccine schedules supports optimizing infant HIV vaccines as a high priority. The panelists discussed the unique opportunities and challenges of testing candidate HIV vaccines in the context of distinct early-life immunity. Key developments providing rationale and grounds for cautious optimism regarding evaluation of early-life HIV vaccines include recent studies of early-life immune ontogeny, studies of HIV-infected infants demonstrating relatively rapid generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), discovery of novel adjuvants active in early life, and cutting-edge sample-sparing systems biology and immunologic assays promising deep insight into vaccine action in infants. Multidisciplinary efforts toward the goal of an infant HIV vaccine are under way and should be nurtured and amplified.IMPORTANCE Young adults represent one of the highest-risk groups for new HIV infections and the only group in which morbidity continues to increase. Therefore, an HIV vaccine to prevent HIV acquisition in adolescence is a top priority. The introduction of any vaccine during adolescence is challenging. This meeting discussed the opportunities and challenges of testing HIV vaccine candidates in the context of the infant immune system given recent advances in our knowledge of immune ontogeny and adjuvant design and studies demonstrating that HIV-infected infants generate broadly neutralizing antibodies, a main target of HIV vaccines, more rapidly than adults. Considering the global success of pediatric vaccines, the concept of an HIV vaccine introduced in early life holds merit and warrants testing.
Singh, A; Permar, S; Kollmann, TR; Levy, O; Marovich, M; De Paris, K
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