Plant cell-surface GIPC sphingolipids sense salt to trigger Ca2+ influx.
Salinity is detrimental to plant growth, crop production and food security worldwide. Excess salt triggers increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, which activate Ca2+-binding proteins and upregulate the Na+/H+ antiporter in order to remove Na+. Salt-induced increases in Ca2+ have long been thought to be involved in the detection of salt stress, but the molecular components of the sensing machinery remain unknown. Here, using Ca2+-imaging-based forward genetic screens, we isolated the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant monocation-induced [Ca2+]i increases 1 (moca1), and identified MOCA1 as a glucuronosyltransferase for glycosyl inositol phosphorylceramide (GIPC) sphingolipids in the plasma membrane. MOCA1 is required for salt-induced depolarization of the cell-surface potential, Ca2+ spikes and waves, Na+/H+ antiporter activation, and regulation of growth. Na+ binds to GIPCs to gate Ca2+ influx channels. This salt-sensing mechanism might imply that plasma-membrane lipids are involved in adaption to various environmental salt levels, and could be used to improve salt resistance in crops.
Jiang, Z; Zhou, X; Tao, M; Yuan, F; Liu, L; Wu, F; Wu, X; Xiang, Y; Niu, Y; Liu, F; Li, C; Ye, R; Byeon, B; Xue, Y; Zhao, H; Wang, H-N; Crawford, BM; Johnson, DM; Hu, C; Pei, C; Zhou, W; Swift, GB; Zhang, H; Vo-Dinh, T; Hu, Z; Siedow, JN; Pei, Z-M
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