Sleep therapeutics and neuropsychiatric illness.
Alterations in sleep are extremely common in patients with neuropsychiatric illness. In addition, sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and circadian rhythm disorders commonly occur at a rate greater than the general population in neuropsychiatric conditions. Historically, sleep problems have been viewed as symptoms of associated neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting a complex inter-relationship with possible bidirectional causality. The inter-relatedness of these conditions represents an opportunity for understanding mechanisms and improving clinical treatment. To the extent that sleep problems affect neuropsychiatric conditions, it may be possible to address sleep problems and have a positive impact on the course of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Further, some treatments for sleep disorders have direct effects on neuropsychiatric illnesses that may be unrelated to their effects on sleep disorders. Similarly, neuropsychiatric conditions and their treatments can affect sleep and sleep disorders. This article reviews available evidence on the effects of therapies for sleep disorders on neuropsychiatric conditions and also secondarily considers the impacts of therapies for neuropsychiatric conditions on sleep. Primary goals of this review are to identify gaps in current research, to determine the extent to which the cross-therapeutic effects of these treatments help to elucidate therapeutic or pathological mechanisms, and to assist clinicians in optimizing therapeutic choice in patients with sleep disorders and neuropsychiatric conditions.
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