Modulation of resting connectivity between the mesial frontal cortex and basal ganglia
© 2019 Popa, Morris, Hunt, Deng, Horovitz, Mente, Shitara, Baek, Hallett and Voon. Background: The mesial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum are key nodes of the human mesial fronto-striatal circuit involved in decision-making and executive function and pathological disorders. Here we ask whether deep wide-field repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) influences resting state functional connectivity. Methods: In Study 1, we examined functional connectivity using resting state multi-echo and independent components analysis in 154 healthy subjects to characterize default connectivity in the MPFC and mid-cingulate cortex (MCC). In Study 2, we used inhibitory, 1 Hz deep rTMS with the H7-coil targeting MPFC and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) in a separate group of 20 healthy volunteers and examined pre- and post-TMS functional connectivity using seed-based and independent components analysis. Results: In Study 1, we show that MPFC and MCC have distinct patterns of functional connectivity with MPFC-ventral striatum showing negative, whereas MCC-ventral striatum showing positive functional connectivity. Low-frequency rTMS decreased functional connectivity of MPFC and dACC with the ventral striatum. We further showed enhanced connectivity between MCC and ventral striatum. Conclusions: These findings emphasize how deep inhibitory rTMS using the H7-coil can influence underlying network functional connectivity by decreasing connectivity of the targeted MPFC regions, thus potentially enhancing response inhibition and decreasing drug-cue reactivity processes relevant to addictions. The unexpected finding of enhanced default connectivity between MCC and ventral striatum may be related to the decreased influence and connectivity between the MPFC and MCC. These findings are highly relevant to the treatment of disorders relying on the mesio-prefrontal-cingulo-striatal circuit.
Popa, T; Morris, LS; Hunt, R; Deng, ZD; Horovitz, S; Mente, K; Shitara, H; Baek, K; Hallett, M; Voon, V
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