A perspective on nanowire photodetectors: Current status, future challenges, and opportunities
One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (nanowires (NWs), nanotubes, nanopillars, nanorods, etc.) based photodetectors (PDs) have been gaining traction in the research community due to their ease of synthesis and unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the physics and technology of NW PDs offer numerous insights and opportunities for nanoscale optoelectronics, photovoltaics, plasmonics, and emerging negative index metamaterials devices. The successful integration of these NW PDs on CMOS-compatible substrates and various low-cost substrates via direct growth and transfer-printing techniques would further enhance and facilitate the adaptation of this technology module in the semiconductor foundries. In this paper, we review the unique advantages of NW-based PDs, current device integration schemes and practical strategies, recent device demonstrations in lateral and vertical process integration with methods to incorporate NWs in PDs via direct growth (nanoepitaxy) methods and transfer-printing methods, and discuss the numerous technical design challenges. In particular, we present an ultrafast surface-illuminated PD with 11.4-ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), edge-illuminated novel waveguide PDs, and some novel concepts of light trapping to provide a full-length discussion on the topics of: 1) low-resistance contact and interfaces for NW integration; 2) high-speed design and impedance matching; and 3) CMOS-compatible mass-manufacturable device fabrication. Finally, we offer a brief outlook into the future opportunities of NW PDs for consumer and military application. © 2011 IEEE.
Vj, L; Oh, J; Nayak, AP; Katzenmeyer, AM; Gilchrist, KH; Grego, S; Kobayashi, NP; Wang, SY; Talin, AA; Dhar, NK; Islam, MS
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