Hepatitis C viremia as a risk factor for opportunistic infections in kidney transplant recipients.
The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics, frequency of opportunistic infections (OI) in HCV-positive kidney recipients, and to evaluate HCV replication as a risk factor for developing an OI. We conducted a retrospective study of all kidney recipients from 2003 to 2014. A total of 1203 kidney transplants were performed during the study period. Opportunistic infections were recorded in 251 patients (21%) and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) positivity in 75 (6%). Patients who are HCV NAAT positive were more likely to present an OI than those who are HCV NAAT negative (45% vs 20%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed the factors that were independently associated with the development of OI to be acute rejection, graft loss, post-transplantation hemodialysis, and HCV replication. Liver cirrhosis after transplantation could not be considered a risk factor to develop OI. To conclude, a high index of suspicion of OI must be maintained in the case of kidney recipients with HCV replication. Active surveillance of cytomegalovirus infection and other prophylactic strategies against OI should be considered after 6 month post-transplantation. Prompt initiation of DAA therapies may be a useful option aiming to decrease the incidence of OI after transplantation.
Bodro, M; Londoño, MC; Esforzado, N; Sanclemente, G; Linares, L; Solano, MF; Cofan, F; Marcos, MA; Diekmann, F; Moreno, A
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