Severe Hepatitis C Recurrence as a Risk Factor for Opportunistic Infections in Liver Transplant Recipients.
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to determine the clinical characteristics, frequency of opportunistic infections (OI), and the outcomes for liver transplant recipients with severe hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence. In addition, the objective was to evaluate HCV recurrence as a risk factor for developing an OI. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective observational study recording all liver transplant recipients from July 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Patients with liver disease due to HCV were selected. Active surveillance of infections was conducted periodically, and patients were classified according to presence of severe HCV recurrence. RESULTS:Three hundred seventy patients underwent liver transplantation because of chronic HCV. One hundred forty-seven patients presented severe recurrence (SR) (49%) and 50 (17%) of them had post-liver transplant cholestatic hepatitis C. Patients with SR presented OI, especially cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections and invasive fungal infections, more frequently than patients without SR (33% vs 13%; P < .001). From the diagnosis of SR to the presentation of OI, the median number of days was 169 (6-2083). Acute allograft rejection (OR 1.8 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.3) donor age ≥60 years (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.3-6.8), and SR (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6-5.1) were independently associated with the development of OI in liver transplant recipients. CONCLUSION:A high index of suspicion of opportunistic infections must be maintained when faced with severe HCV recurrence in liver transplant recipients. Moreover, active surveillance against CMV infection and other prophylactic strategies against opportunistic infections should be considered.
Bodro, M; Sanclemente, G; Crespo, G; Linares, L; Marcos, MA; Marco, F; Miquel, R; Forns, X; Navasa, M; Moreno, A
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