Prevalence and risk factors of mild chronic renal failure in HIV-infected patients: influence of female gender and antiretroviral therapy.
In people living with HIV, much is known about chronic kidney disease, defined as a glomerular filtration rate under 60mL/min. However, there is scarce data about prevalence and risk factors for milder impairment (60-89mL/min).The present study aims to assess the influence of sex, antiretroviral therapy, and classical risk factors on the occurrence of mild decreased renal function in a large Spanish cohort of HIV-infected patients.Cross-sectional, single center study, including all adult HIV-1-infected patients under antiretroviral treatment with at least two serum creatinine measures during 2014, describing the occurrence of and the risk factors for mildly decreased renal function (eGFR by CKD-EPI creatinine equation of 60-89mL/min).Among the 4337 patients included, the prevalence rate of mildly reduced renal function was 25%. Independent risk factors for this outcome were age older than 50 years (OR 3.03, 95% CI 2.58-3.55), female sex (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), baseline hypertension (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.25-1.97) or dyslipidemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87), virologic suppression (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.39-2.53), and exposure to tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.33-2.08) or ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitors (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.39).Females and patients over 50 seem to be more vulnerable to renal impairment. Potentially modifiable risk factors and exposure to tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate or ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitors are present even in earlier stages of chronic kidney dysfunction. It remains to be determined whether early interventions including antiretroviral therapy changes (tenofovir alafenamide, cobicistat) or improving comorbidities management will improve the course of chronic kidney disease.
Cristelli, MP; Trullàs, JC; Cofán, F; Rico, N; Manzardo, C; Ambrosioni, J; Bedini, JL; Moreno, A; Diekmann, F; Miro, JM; CKD-H. Clinical Investigators,
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