Prevalence of causes of secondary osteoporosis and contribution to lower bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients.
Eighty-one percent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients had one or more of seven evaluated causes of secondary osteoporosis, and this rate increases with age. The type and number of causes were associated with a lower bone mineral density (BMD), and with an increased rate of osteopenia/osteoporosis, regardless of age and body mass index.The objective of this study was to determine whether factors of secondary osteoporosis were associated with lower BMD in HIV.This was a cross-sectional study of 285 HIV-infected patients (25 % females) evaluating the impact of seven different factors of reduced BMD: hyperthyroidism, diabetes, chronic viral hepatitis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypovitaminosis D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and hypogonadism. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the femoral neck was obtained at the clinical visit.Mean age was 45.7 years; osteopenia and osteoporosis were diagnosed in 38 and 6 %, respectively. Overall, 230 patients (81 %) had secondary factors; 107 (38 %) had only 1 cause, 94 (33 %) had 2, and 28 (10 %) had 3 or more, predominantly vitamin D deficiency in 61 %, hepatitis C virus coinfection in 45 %, and secondary hyperparathyroidism in 27 %. The number of secondary factors was closely related to a lower BMD, which is statistically significant for patients having ≥2 causes (0.77 vs 0.73 g/cm(2), p = 0.02). The rate of osteopenia ranged from 36 % without any cause to 57 % with three or more, osteoporosis from 0 to 19 %, and Z-score <-2 SD from 0 to 27 %, respectively. In a multivariate linear regression, adjusting by age, body mass index, and HIV-related factors, the number of secondary factors was independently associated with a lower BMD (ß coefficient -0.134; p = 0.02), mainly due to patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and CKD.A high prevalence of secondary causes of osteoporosis is observed in HIV-infected patients, and its type and cumulative number determine a lower BMD, after adjusting by age and body mass index.
Casado, JL; Bañon, S; Andrés, R; Perez-Elías, MJ; Moreno, A; Moreno, S
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