The significance of antiretroviral-associated acute kidney injury in a cohort of ambulatory human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.
BACKGROUND: To determine the incidence and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 271 consecutively treated HIV-infected patients, initiating first (75) or sequential HAART (196) from January 2008 to June 2011. AKI was diagnosed according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE)/Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, and the risk of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) was evaluated. RESULTS: A greater estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decrease after 1 year was observed for patients initiating a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based regimen (-6.45 versus +0.98 mL/min/1.73 m(2) when compared with patients without TDF; P < 0.01), both in the case of the first (-8.5 versus -2.27; P = 0.04) or successive regimens (-5.3 versus + 1.18 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P < 0.01). AKI, as defined, was observed in 10% (28 cases, 6.98 episodes/100 patients-year), mostly stage I (27 cases), in a median time of 6 (3-16.5) months. Four cases (14%), having a worse baseline renal function progressed to CKD, whereas four recovered completely. In the multivariate analysis, AKI was associated with the concomitant use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and to low CD4+ count. CKD was diagnosed in 2% (six cases) of patients. Therefore, the overall rate of HAART-associated renal disorders was 11% (30 cases, 7.46 episodes/100 patients-year (95% confidence interval, 6.09-8.83). CONCLUSIONS: The initiation of a tenofovir-based regimen is followed by a significant decline in eGFR, although it could be misinterpreted by the concomitant use of cotrimoxazole. A substantial proportion of patients develop AKI, but only a minority progress to CKD. Patients initiating HAART and developing AKI should be carefully monitored for progression of renal disease.
Wikman, P; Safont, P; Del Palacio, M; Moreno, A; Moreno, S; Casado, JL
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