Multidrug-resistant bacterial infection in solid organ transplant recipients.
The most frequent complication from infection after solid organ transplantation is bacterial infection. This complication is more frequent in organ transplantation involving the abdominal cavity, such as liver or pancreas transplantation, and less frequent in heart transplant recipients. The sources, clinical characteristics, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcomes vary according to the time of onset after transplantation. Most bacterial infections during the first month post-transplantation are hospital acquired, and there is usually a high incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The higher incidence of complications from bacterial infection in the first month post-transplantation may be associated with high morbidity. Of special interest due to their frequency are infections by S. aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative enteric and non-fermentative bacilli. Opportunistic bacterial infections may occur at any time on the posttransplant timeline, but are more frequent between months two and six, the period in which immunosuppression is higher. The most frequent bacterial species causing opportunistic infections in organ transplant recipients are Listeria monocytogenes and Nocardia spp. After month six, posttransplantation solid organ transplant patients usually develop conventional community-acquired bacterial infections, especially urinary tract infections by E. coli and S. pneumoniae pneumonia. In this article we review the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, diagnosis and prognosis of bacterial infections in solid organ transplant patients.
Cervera, C; Linares, L; Bou, G; Moreno, A
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