Immunohistochemically proven cytomegalovirus end-organ disease in solid organ transplant patients: clinical features and usefulness of conventional diagnostic tests.
We studied the main clinical features, outcome, and laboratory parameters in a group of solid organ transplant (SOT) patients with immunohistochemically proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Confirmed CMV cases were obtained through databases. Demographics, clinical data, transplantation type, immunosuppressive regimens, donor and recipient CMV serostatus, therapy, outcome and laboratory results, pp65 antigenemia, and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV were analyzed. From 1995 to 2004, 31 cases with complete medical records were identified. Disease appeared between 24 and 2538 days after transplantation but most cases presented in the first 100 days. Gastrointestinal CMV disease was the most frequent form (71%), while thrombocytopenia was present in 50% of cases, and leukopenia was less common (35.5%). CMV pp65 antigenemia was positive in 58% of patients, but its sensitivity increased to 71% if performed during the first 6 months. A qualitative CMV PCR technique gave similar results during this period (71.4%). Most patients were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (n=25; 80.6%). In 4 cases (19.4%), use of foscarnet alone or a sequential regimen with ganciclovir-foscarnet was deemed necessary. Surgical procedures were necessary in 5 patients (16%). The death rate reached 13%. CMV end-organ disease can be a life-threatening infection in SOT patients. Gastrointestinal disease was the most frequent end-organ disease. CMV antigen detection is best suited for the early period after transplantation.
Fica, A; Cervera, C; Pérez, N; Marcos, MA; Ramírez, J; Linares, L; Soto, G; Navasa, M; Cofan, F; Ricart, MJ; Pérez-Villa, F; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A
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