Bacteremia and septic shock after solid-organ transplantation.
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia and septic shock remain important causes of morbidity and mortality after solid-organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics and risk factors for mortality among patients with bloodstream infections and shock. METHODS: From January 1991 to December 2000, all episodes of bloodstream infection were prospectively examined, considering bacteremia or fungemia as significant according to the CDC criteria. Septic shock was diagnosed in a patient with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and persistent dysfunction of at least one organ caused by hypoperfusion despite hemodynamic support. RESULTS: There were 466 episodes of bacteremia in 382 patients, with 66 of them developing septic shock. Risk factors for developing shock were age >50 (P = .006), liver transplant (P = .029), nosocomial infection (P = .034), pulmonary focus (P = .0001), P. aeruginosa infection (P = .001), and polymicrobial etiology (P = .039). On multivariate analysis, only age, nosocomial infection, and pulmonary source were significant. Among 66 shock patients, bacteremia was due to gram-negative bacteria in 53%, gram-positive bacteria in 24%, fungal in 7.5%, and polymicrobial in 12% of patients. The most frequent source was the lung (26%). Empiric antimicrobial therapy was correctly chosen in 79%; however, 36 patients died (54%), including 27 despite correct therapy. Urinary tract infections had less mortality than other foci. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for developing septic shock in bacteremia were age more than 50 years, nosocomial acquisition, and pulmonary focus. Despite adequate empiric antibiotic therapy, the mortality remained high.
Candel, FJ; Grima, E; Matesanz, M; Cervera, C; Soto, G; Almela, M; Martínez, JA; Navasa, M; Cofán, F; Ricart, MJ; Pérez-Villa, F; Moreno, A
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