Effect of penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae on the presentation, prognosis, and treatment of pneumococcal endocarditis in adults.
We performed a clinical study of pneumococcal endocarditis (PE) in adults at 15 major Spanish hospitals during a 21-year period (1978-1998). During this time, 63 patients had PE due to Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed. Of the 63 isolates recovered from these patients, 24 (38%) and 6 (10%) showed resistance to penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 0.1-4 microg/mL) and cefotaxime (MIC, 1 microg/mL), respectively. Twenty-two (35%) of the patients died. Left-side heart failure, but not penicillin resistance, was independently associated with a higher risk of death (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.71; P=.026). Patients without meningitis who had PE due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae could be treated with high-dose penicillin or a third-generation cephalosporin if the MIC for penicillin was < or =1 microg/mL. For patients with concurrent meningitis, high doses of cefotaxime could be used if the MIC for cefotaxime was < or =1 microg/mL. Early recognition of heart failure and surgery may help to decrease mortality.
Martínez, E; Miró, JM; Almirante, B; Aguado, JM; Fernandez-Viladrich, P; Fernandez-Guerrero, ML; Villanueva, JL; Dronda, F; Moreno-Torrico, A; Montejo, M; Llinares, P; Gatell, JM; Spanish Pneumococcal Endocarditis Study Group,
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