Epidemiology and outcomes of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection in renal transplantation.
BACKGROUND: Mutiresistant bacterial infections are an emerging problem in the nosocomial setting. Our objectives were to describe the incidence, outcome, and risk factors for acquisition of multiresistant bacteria among renal transplant recipients. METHODS: We prospectively followed patients undergoing kidney transplantation over a 3-year period. We collected demographic features, underlying chronic diseases, and main transplant characteristics and complications. Multiple antibiotic resistance was defined for the most important bacteria: Enteric gram-negative bacilli resistant to betalactamics, cephalosporins, and quinolones; Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin, cotrimoxazole, and clindamcin; Enterococcus spp resistant to ampicillin and quinolones; nonfermentator bacilli resistant to all antibiotics except aminoglycosides and collistin. RESULTS: Overall, 416 patients included 65 double transplants (62 kidney-pancreas and three kidney-liver) of mean age 48.5 years, and 57% men. Infection with multiresistant bacteria was observed in 58 patients (14%). Most frequent multiresistant bacteria were: Escherichia coli (n = 33), Klebsiella spp (n = 15), Citrobacter spp (n = 8), Enterobacter spp (n = 5), Morganella morganii (n = 2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 16), Acinetobacter baumanii (n = 2), Enterococcus spp (n = 9) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, n = 2). Age greater than 50 years, hepatitis C virus infection, double kidney-pancreas transplantation, requirement for posttransplant hemodialysis, surgical reoperation, and requirement for nephrostomy were independent variables associated with multiresistant bacterial infection. Most used antibiotics for treatment were: carbapenems (65%), amikacin (12%), linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomycin, collistin, and fosfomycin. Infection with multiresistant bacteria was associated with a worse prognosis (graft loss or death, 19% vs 8%, P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of infection with multiresistant bacteria in our renal transplant cohort was high, being most frequently cephalosporin-resistant enteric gram-negative bacilli and multiresistant P aeruginosa. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus incidence was low. Infection with multiresistant bacteria conferred a worse prognosis.
Linares, L; Cervera, C; Cofán, F; Ricart, MJ; Esforzado, N; Torregrosa, V; Oppenheimer, F; Campistol, JM; Marco, F; Moreno, A
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)