Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in solid organ transplant recipients: epidemiology and antibiotic resistance.
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well recognized source of nosocomial infection in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. It is also the most common species capable of producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Its treatment can therefore be a challenge owing to antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Prospective study of all transplant recipients from July 2003 to December 2007 at our center. Klebsiellla pneumoniae infectious events were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 1,057 patients were enrolled, 509 (48%) renal, 360 (34%) liver, 78 (7%) heart, and 110 (10%) double transplants. We diagnosed 116 episodes of K. pneumoniae infection in 92 patients during the study period, of which 62 were ESBL-producing strains (53%). Thirty-four episodes had bacteremia (29%), 15 of which were caused by ESBL-producing strains. There were no strains of K. pneumoniae producing carbapanemase (KPC). Forty-seven percent of the episodes occurred during the first month after transplantation. The incidence of infection by type of transplant was: renal 11%, liver 7%, cardiac 5%, and double transplant 6% (P=.075). The major sites of infection were urinary tract 72%, surgical wound 5%, intraabdominal 6%, catheter 5%, lung 1%, bloodstream 1%, and others 2%. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains were more common in renal transplant patients (P=.035) and in those who required posttransplant dialysis (P=.022). There were 4 deaths in the first 30 days after the isolation of K. pneumoniae, and 3 of these cases were infections caused by ESBL-producing strains. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae infections in SOT recipients and renal transplant recipients, and those who required dialysis were more likely to develop infection by this strain. No KPC-producing organisms were found in our series. The existence of such a high level of resistance is a well recognized hospital threat, and appropriate policies and interventions should be addressed in high-risk patients.
Linares, L; Cervera, C; Hoyo, I; Sanclemente, G; Marco, F; Cofán, F; Ricart, MJ; Navasa, M; Moreno, A
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