Universal prophylaxis with fluconazole for the prevention of early invasive fungal infection in low-risk liver transplant recipients.
BACKGROUND: Although antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk liver transplant recipients (LTR) seems to be clearly justified, the efficacy of universal prophylaxis (UP) including low-risk patients is controversial. METHODS: From the study cohort RESITRA-REIPI, which prospectively analyzed 1010 LTR (September 2003 to February 2005) in 12 Spanish hospitals, we compared the incidence of early invasive fungal infection (IFI, first 90 days) between centers performing or not UP with fluconazole (for a minimum of 7 days) in low-risk LTR (none of the following: posttransplant renal failure, urgent transplant/retransplant, or choledochojejunostomy). RESULTS: Three of 12 centers used UP. A total of 799 LTR were considered as low-risk patients (206 included in the UP group and 593 did not). We reported a total of 11 episodes of early IFI (six due to Candida albicans, one due to C. guillermondii, and three due to Aspergillus fumigatus) in 10 patients (incidence: 1.2%), with two cases of death attributable to IFI (18%) in both patients with invasive aspergillosis. There were no differences in the incidence of IFI between the patients receiving or not UP (4/206:1.9% vs. 6/593:1%, respectively; P=0.36). CONCLUSIONS: IFI is infrequent in LTR not fulfilling major high-risk factors criteria, and prophylaxis with fluconazole in this low-risk group does not seem to be justified.
San-Juan, R; Aguado, JM; Lumbreras, C; Fortun, J; Len, O; Muñoz, P; Montejo, M; Moreno, A; Cordero, E; Blanes, M; Ramos, A; de la Torre-Cisneros, J; Lopez-Medrano, F; Carratala, J; Moreno, E; RESITRA-REIPI Network, Spain,
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