High rate of didanosine-related mitochondrial toxicity in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving ribavirin.
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside analogues may induce mitochondrial toxicity, particularly didanosine. Ribavirin increases didanosine exposure, which might be clinically relevant when coadministered in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, among 89 patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and therapy for chronic hepatitis C, clinically relevant mitochondrial toxicity in those treated with concomitant ribavirin and didanosine (n=35, 39%). METHODS: From January 2000 to July 2002 longitudinal analysis of the incidence and clinical course of didanosine-related hyperamylasaemia, pancreatitis, hyperlactataemia/lactic acidosis or neuropathy. Risk factors were evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Among 35 patients who received concomitant didanosine (400 mg/day in 86%) and ribavirin (> or = 10 mg/kg/day in 91%), 20 (57%) developed one or more adverse events after a mean of 87 days. Most frequent laboratory abnormalities were hyperamylasaemia (18 patients, 51%) and hyperlactataemia (eight patients, 23%). Acute pancreatitis and symptomatic hyperlactataemia developed in 10 (28%) and six (17%) patients, respectively. Two patients (6%) with pancreatitis and severe lactic acidosis died; the other patients recovered uneventfully despite continuation of anti-HCV therapy in 83% after didanosine withdrawal in 40%. In the Cox's model higher baseline amylase levels (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06, P=0.001) and three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HAART (HR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.73-16.24, P=0.003) were significantly associated to toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The coadministration of didanosine and ribavirin should be avoided in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, due to a high rate of clinically significant toxicity, particularly in triple nucleoside-based HAART. Amylase levels should be strictly monitored, especially if elevated at baseline.
Moreno, A; Quereda, C; Moreno, L; Perez-Elías, MJ; Muriel, A; Casado, JL; Antela, A; Dronda, F; Navas, E; Bárcena, R; Moreno, S
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