Fascia Iliaca Blockade With the Addition of Liposomal Bupivacaine Versus Plain Bupivacaine for Perioperative Pain Management During Hip Arthroscopy: A Double-Blinded Prospective Randomized Control Trial.
PURPOSE: To determine in a prospective, randomized fashion whether liposomal bupivacaine extends the effectiveness of decreased pain scores and reduces narcotic requirements following hip arthroscopy when used in addition to a fascia iliaca blockade with plain bupivacaine alone. METHODS: Double-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial of participants undergoing hip arthroscopy. Randomized to receive a fascia iliaca blockade with 40 mL 0.25% plain bupivacaine (100 mg; control group) or 20 mL 0.5% plain bupivacaine (100 mg) plus 20 mL liposomal bupivacaine (266 mg; study group). The primary outcome was Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) scores in the postanesthesia care unit and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 2, 3, and 14. Secondary outcomes included postoperative opioid consumption and subjective loss of anterior thigh sensation. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were enrolled, and 70 completed the study; 37 were randomized to the control group and 33 to the study group. There was no significant difference in postoperative DVPRS scores at any time point. There was no significant difference in total postoperative opioid use during any postoperative time points. While most patients reported anterior thigh numbness at discharge, significantly more patients in the study group reported anterior thigh numbness at POD2 (control, 19/37 numb vs study, 32/33 numb; P < .0001) and at POD3 (control, 8/37 numb vs study, 26/33 numb; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective evaluation comparing plain bupivacaine versus the liposomal formulation administered via a fascia iliaca blockade there were no significant differences in postoperative pain scores and narcotic pill usage. Given the highly significant findings of prolonged anterior thigh numbness out to POD3 in patients who received liposomal bupivacaine, this formulation did exhibit prolonged effects; however, it did not provide improved pain control when used in this surgical population, likely due to the innervation of the hip capsule from differential nerve plexi. Given the 6-fold increased cost of using the liposomal formulation, we are unable to recommend its use via a fascia iliaca blockade for hip arthroscopy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, therapeutic study.
Purcell, RL; Brooks, DI; Steelman, TJ; Christensen, DL; Dickens, JF; Kent, ML; McCabe, MP; Anderson, TD
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