Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: long-term follow-up of 60 patients.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Breast implant-associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a recently described clinicopathologic entity that usually presents as an effusion-associated fibrous capsule surrounding an implant. Less frequently, it presents as a mass. The natural history of this disease and long-term outcomes are unknown.

Patients and methods

We reviewed the literature for all published cases of breast implant-associated ALCL from 1997 to December 2012 and contacted corresponding authors to update clinical follow-up.


The median overall survival (OS) for 60 patients was 12 years (median follow-up, 2 years; range, 0-14 years). Capsulectomy and implant removal was performed on 56 of 60 patients (93%). Therapeutic data were available for 55 patients: 39 patients (78%) received systemic chemotherapy, and of the 16 patients (28%) who did not receive chemotherapy, 12 patients opted for watchful waiting and four patients received radiation therapy alone. Thirty-nine (93%) of 42 patients with disease confined by the fibrous capsule achieved complete remission, compared with complete remission in 13 (72%) of 18 patients with a tumor mass. Patients with a breast mass had worse OS and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .052 and P = .03, respectively). The OS or PFS were similar between patients who received and did not receive chemotherapy (P = .44 and P = .28, respectively).


Most patients with breast implant-associated ALCL who had disease confined within the fibrous capsule achieved complete remission. Proper management for these patients may be limited to capsulectomy and implant removal. Patients who present with a mass have a more aggressive clinical course that may be fatal, justifying cytotoxic chemotherapy in addition to removal of implants.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Miranda, RN; Aladily, TN; Prince, HM; Kanagal-Shamanna, R; de Jong, D; Fayad, LE; Amin, MB; Haideri, N; Bhagat, G; Brooks, GS; Shifrin, DA; O'Malley, DP; Cheah, CY; Bacchi, CE; Gualco, G; Li, S; Keech, JA; Hochberg, EP; Carty, MJ; Hanson, SE; Mustafa, E; Sanchez, S; Manning, JT; Xu-Monette, ZY; Miranda, AR; Fox, P; Bassett, RL; Castillo, JJ; Beltran, BE; de Boer, JP; Chakhachiro, Z; Ye, D; Clark, D; Young, KH; Medeiros, LJ

Published Date

  • January 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 114 - 120

PubMed ID

  • 24323027

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4062709

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1527-7755

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0732-183X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1200/jco.2013.52.7911


  • eng