Pattern of failure in anaplastic glioma patients with an IDH1/2 mutation.
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to assess patterns of failure (PoF) in anaplastic glioma (AG) patients managed with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and their relationship to molecular subtype. METHODS: The outcomes of AG patients managed between 2008 and 2014 and entered into a prospective database were assessed, including PoF. AG was initially defined using the WHO 2007 classification, but for analysis, patients were subsequently recategorised based on WHO 2016 as anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AOD), astrocytoma isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant (AAmut) or astrocytoma IDH wildtype (AAwt). Management involved IMRT and temozolomide (TMZ), including from 2011 patients with an IDH mutation (IDHmut) planned with 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET). PoF was local, marginal or distant in relation to the IMRT volume. Relapse-free survival (RFS) was calculated from the start of IMRT. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were assessed, with median follow-up of 5.1 years. Of these patients, 75% were IDHmut, 44% were managed at first or later relapse and 73% received TMZ. Relapse occurred in 68 patients, with 6‑year RFS of 75.0, 48.8 and 2.5% for AOD, AAmut and AAwt, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a component of local relapse in 63%, of marginal relapse in 19% and of distant relapse in 37% of relapses. Isolated local, marginal and distant relapse was evident in 51, 9 and 22%, respectively. A distant relapse pattern was more frequent in IDHmut compared to IDHwt patients (26% vs. 45%, p = 0.005), especially within the first 2 years post-IMRT. In multivariate analysis, distant relapse remained associated with AAmut (p < 0.002) and delayed IMRT until the second relapse (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although patients with IDH-mutated AG have improved outcomes, there was a higher proportion of distant relapses occurring during the 2 years after IMRT.
Back, M; Jayamanne, D; Brazier, D; Newey, A; Bailey, D; Schembri, G; Hsiao, E; Khasraw, M; Wong, M; Kastelan, M; Brown, C; Wheeler, H
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