Preclinical in Vitro and in Vivo Assessment of Linear and Branched l -Valine-Based Poly(ester urea)s for Soft Tissue Applications
New polymers are needed to address the shortcomings of commercially available materials for soft tissue repair. Herein, we investigated a series of l-valine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEUs) that vary in monomer composition and the extent of branching as candidate materials for soft tissue repair. The preimplantation Young's moduli (105 ± 30 to 269 ± 12 MPa) for all the PEUs are comparable to those of polypropylene (165 ± 5 MPa) materials currently employed in hernia-mesh repair. The 2% branched poly(1-VAL-8) maintained the highest Young's modulus following 3 months of in vivo implantation (78 ± 34 MPa) when compared to other PEU analogues (20 ± 6-45 ± 5 MPa). Neither the linear or branched PEUs elicited a significant inflammatory response in vivo as noted by less fibrous capsule formation after 3 months of implantation (80 ± 38 to 103 ± 33 μm) relative to polypropylene controls (126 ± 34 μm). Mechanical degradation in vivo over three months, coupled with limited inflammatory response, suggests that l-valine-based PEUs are translationally relevant materials for soft tissue applications.
Dreger, NZ; Wandel, MB; Robinson, LL; Luong, D; Søndergaard, CS; Hiles, M; Premanandan, C; Becker, ML
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