Catheter-directed gastric artery chemical embolization for modulation of systemic ghrelin levels in a porcine model: initial experience.
PURPOSE: To prospectively test, in a porcine model, the hypothesis that use of catheter-directed gastric artery chemical embolization (GACE) can result in substantial suppression of systemic ghrelin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. Adult healthy swine (40-45 kg, n=8) were tested. GACE was performed by infusing morrhuate sodium selectively into the left gastric artery. Six swine (animals A-F) underwent left GACE by using a dose-escalating regimen of morrhuate sodium, whereas two control swine underwent a sham procedure. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were compared in swine at baseline and at weeks 1-4. At week 4, stomachs were excised and analyzed. Analysis of the change in ghrelin values and weight was performed with both paired t test and unpaired Student t test. RESULTS: In control swine (n=2), there was no significant difference in ghrelin values before (844.8 pg/mL +/- 40 [standard deviation]) and after (997 pg/mL +/- 93) the procedure (P=.5). Swine that received a low dose of morrhuate sodium (animals A-D) showed a significant increase in serum ghrelin values from 683.7 pg/mL +/- 241 to 1555.9 pg/mL +/- 312 (P=.002). At a higher dose, the mean baseline ghrelin values decreased from 466 pg/mL to 187 pg/mL +/- 162. Weight changes of +1.4% and +8.6% were seen in swine that underwent GACE and control swine, respectively. Histochemical staining showed preservation of overall tissue architecture and parietal cells. CONCLUSION: Use of GACE can result in increased or suppressed ghrelin levels.
Arepally, A; Barnett, BP; Montgomery, E; Patel, TH
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