Assessment of EmboGel--a selectively dissolvable radiopaque hydrogel for embolic applications.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the embolic properties of an alginate-based embolic biomaterial (EmboGel) and its solvent (EmboClear) in treatment of aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EmboGel is a mixture of iohexol and alginate that polymerizes into a hydrocoil when delivered through a coaxial catheter with a distal mixing tip, exposing alginate to a calcium chloride solution. In contrast to previously reported embolic agents, EmboGel can be selectively dissolved by EmboClear, a mixture of the enzyme alginate lyase and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The embolic and contrast properties of EmboGel were assessed in in vitro models of saccular aneurysm and an aortic aneurysm endoleak. The dissolvability of EmboGel with EmboClear was assessed further after endovascular delivery in the New Zealand white rabbit in the native aortoiliofemoral territory, a created saccular aneurysm, and the native carotid arteries. RESULTS: EmboGel effectively filled aneurysm cavities in the case of stent excluded saccular and fusiform aneurysms. EmboGel was readily dissolved by EmboClear in vitro and after in vivo embolization. When the distal abdominal aorta and pelvic arteries were occluded with EmboGel, within 1 minute of EmboClear infusion, patency of the aorta and most of the pelvic circulation was regained as noted by angiography. Embolization in the subclavian artery and numerous distal branches was rapidly dissolved by EmboClear. Finally, the carotid artery occluded with EmboGel regained patency after administration of EmboClear. CONCLUSIONS: EmboGel is a dissolvable alginate-based biomaterial that can be used for numerous embolic applications. EmboGel can be selectively dissolved with EmboClear, a solution of alginate lyase and EDTA.
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