Evaluation of MR/fluoroscopy-guided portosystemic shunt creation in a swine model.
PURPOSE: To evaluate three different percutaneous portosystemic shunts created with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluoroscopy guidance in a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In stage 1 of the experiment, an active MR intravascular needle system was created for needle tracking and extracaval punctures. Twenty inferior vena cava (IVC)/superior mesenteric vein (SMV)/portal vein (PV) punctures were performed in 10 swine (weight, 40-45 kg) in a 1.5-T short-bore interventional MR imager. With use of a real-time MR imaging sequence, the needle was guided through the IVC and into the SMV or PV (N = 20 punctures). After confirmation, a wire was advanced into the portal venous system under MR imaging guidance (N = 20). In stage 2, animals were transferred to the radiographic fluoroscopy suite for deployment of shunts. Three different shunts were evaluated in this study: (i) a commercial stent-graft, (ii) a prototype bridging stent, and (iii) a prototype nitinol vascular anastomotic device. Postprocedural necropsy was performed in all animals. RESULTS: Successful MR-guided IVC/SMV punctures were performed in all 20 procedures (100%). All three shunts were deployed. Stent-grafts had the poorest mechanism for securing a shunt. The vascular anastomotic device and the bridging stent had more secure anchoring mechanisms but also had higher technical failure rates (50% and 40%, respectively). When deployed successfully, the vascular anastomotic device resulted in no bleeding at the sites of punctures at necropsy. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous shunts and vascular anastomoses between the portal mesenteric venous system and IVC were successfully created with use of a combination of MR imaging and conventional fluoroscopy for guidance.
Arepally, A; Karmarkar, PV; Qian, D; Barnett, B; Atalar, E
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