History of awake mapping and speech and language localization: from modules to networks.
Lesion-symptom correlations shaped the early understanding of cortical localization. The classic Broca-Wernicke model of cortical speech and language organization underwent a paradigm shift in large part due to advances in brain mapping techniques. This initially started by demonstrating that the cortex was excitable. Later, advancements in neuroanesthesia led to awake surgery for epilepsy focus and tumor resection, providing neurosurgeons with a means of studying cortical and subcortical pathways to understand neural architecture and obtain maximal resection while avoiding so-called critical structures. The aim of this historical review is to highlight the essential role of direct electrical stimulation and cortical-subcortical mapping and the advancements it has made to our understanding of speech and language cortical organization. Specifically, using cortical and subcortical mapping, neurosurgeons shifted from a localist view in which the brain is composed of rigid functional modules to one of dynamic and integrative large-scale networks consisting of interconnected cortical subregions.
Rahimpour, S; Haglund, MM; Friedman, AH; Duffau, H
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