An investigation of a novel reusable radiochromic sheet for 2D dose measurement.
PURPOSE: Radiochromic film remains a useful and versatile clinical dosimetry tool. Current film options are single use. Here, we introduce a novel prototype two-dimensional (2D) radiochromic sheet, which optically clears naturally at room temperature after irradiation and can be reused. We evaluate the sheets for potential as a 2D dosimeter and as a radiochromic bolus with capability for dose measurement. METHODS: A novel derivative of reusable Presage® was manufactured into thin sheets of 5 mm thickness. The sheets contained 2% cumin-leucomalachitegreen-diethylamine (LMG-DEA) and plasticizer (up to 25% by weight). Irradiation experiments were performed to characterize the response to megavoltage radiation, including dose sensitivity, temporal decay rate, consistency of repeat irradiations, intra and inter-sheet reproducibility, multi-modality response (electrons and photons), and temperature sensitivity (22°C to 36°C). The local change in optical-density (ΔOD), before and after radiation, was obtained with a flat-bed film scanner and extracting the red channel. Repeat scanning enabled investigation of the temporal decay of ΔOD. Additional studies investigated clinical utility of the sheets through application to IMRT treatment plans (prostate and a TG119 commissioning plan), and a chest wall electron boost treatment. In the latter test, the sheet performed as a radiochromic bolus. RESULTS: The radiation induced OD change in the sheets was found to be proportional to dose and to exponentially decay to baseline in ~24 h (R2 = 0.9986). The sheet could be reused and had similar sensitivity (within 1% after the first irradiation) for at least eight irradiations. Importantly, no memory of previous irradiations was observed within measurement uncertainty. The consistency of dose response from photons (6 and 15 MV) and electrons (6-20 MeV) was found to be within calibration uncertainty (~1%). The dose sensitivity of the sheets had a temperature dependence of 0.0012 ΔOD/°C. For the short (1 min) single field IMRT QA verification, good agreement was observed between the Presage sheet and EBT film (gamma pass rate 97% at 3% 3 mm dose-difference and distance-to-agreement tolerance, with a 10% threshold). For the longer (~13 min) TG-119 9-field IMRT verification the gamma agreement was lower at 93% pass rate at 5% 3 mm, 10% threshold, when compared with Eclipse. The lower rate is attributed to uncertainty arising from signal decay during irradiation and indicates a current limitation. For the electron cutout treatment, both Presage and EBT agreed well (within 2% RMS difference) but differed from the Eclipse treatment plan (~7% RMS difference) indicating some limitations to the Eclipse modeling in this case. The worst case estimates of uncertainty introduced by the signal decay for deliveries of 2, 5, and 10 min are 0.6%, 1.4%, and 2.8% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Reusable Presage sheets show promise for 2D dose measurement and as a radiochromic bolus for in vivo dose measurement. The current prototype is suitable for deliveries of length up to 5 min, where the uncertainty introduced by signal decay is anticipated to be ~1% (worst case 1.4%), or for longer deliveries where there is no temporal modulation (e.g. physical compensators, or open beams). Additionally, spatial resolution is limited by sheet thickness and scanner resolution, resulting in a practical resolution of 0.8 mm.
Collins, C; Yoon, SW; Kodra, J; Coakley, R; Subashi, E; Sidhu, K; Adamovics, J; Oldham, M
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