Prevalence of Sagging Eye Syndrome in Adults with Binocular Diplopia.
Sagging eye syndrome (SES), horizontal and/or vertical strabismus caused by orbital connective tissue degeneration, was first defined 10 years ago. This study investigated SES and other causes of acquired binocular diplopia in adults presenting to a single institution since the description of SES.
Retrospective observational case series.
Medical records were reviewed of all new patients over the age of 40 who presented to the Stein Eye Institute with binocular diplopia between January 2015 and December 2018. Clinical causes of diplopia were tabulated in patients grouped by age and sex. In patients with SES, we tabulated binocular alignment, types of treatment, and surgical outcomes.
There were 945 patients of mean age 66.5 years, of whom 514 (54.4%) were female. The most common cause of diplopia was SES (31.4%). The 297 patients with SES were older at 71.2 years (P < 0.0001) and more predominantly female at 59.9% than other patients (52.0%; P = 0.023). The relative proportion of SES patients among all diplopic patients increased with age from 4.7% under age 50 years to 60.9% over the age of 90. Age-related distance esotropia was present in 35% and cyclovertical strabismus in 65% of cases of SES. Strabismus surgery was performed in 50% of cases of SES. Mean esotropia at distance decreased from 6.9 ± 0.7Δ preoperatively to 0.3 ± 0.3Δ postoperatively. Preoperative hypertropia decreased from 3.0 ± 0.3Δ to 0.7 ± 0.2Δ postoperatively. Surgery resolved diplopia in all cases.
It is important to recognize that SES is a very common cause of adult binocular diplopia.
Goseki, T; Suh, SY; Robbins, L; Pineles, SL; Velez, FG; Demer, JL
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)