Impact of infection on transplantation tolerance.
Allograft tolerance is the ultimate goal of organ transplantation. Current strategies for tolerance induction mainly focus on inhibiting alloreactive T cells while promoting regulatory immune cells. Pathogenic infections may have direct impact on both effector and regulatory cell populations, therefore can alter host susceptibility to transplantation tolerance induction as well as impair the quality and stability of tolerance once induced. In this review, we will discuss existing data demonstrating the effect of infections on transplantation tolerance, with particular emphasis on the role of the stage of infection (acute, chronic, or latent) and the stage of tolerance (induction or maintenance) in this infection-tolerance interaction. While the deleterious effect of acute infection on tolerance is mainly driven by proinflammatory cytokines induced shortly after the infection, chronic infection may generate exhausted T cells that could in fact facilitate transplantation tolerance. In addition to pathogenic infections, commensal intestinal microbiota also has numerous significant immunomodulatory effects that can shape the host alloimmunity following transplantation. A comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies for robustly inducing and stably maintaining transplantation tolerance while preserving host anti-pathogen immunity in clinically relevant scenarios.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)