Molecular pathways and potential biomarkers in gallbladder cancer: A comprehensive review.
The most common malignancy of the biliary tract, gallbladder cancer (GBC) often has a dismal prognosis. The aggressive nature of the tumor, delayed diagnosis at advanced stages of the disease, and lack of effective treatment options are some of the factors that contribute to a poor outcome. Early detection and accurate assessment of disease burden is critical to optimize management and improve long-term survival, as well as identify patients for adjuvant therapy and clinical trials. With recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of GBC, several specific diagnostic and biomarkers have been proposed as being of diagnostic and prognostic importance. Indeed, identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic markers has an important role in early diagnosis and development of targeted therapies among patients with GBC. Next-generation sequencing technology and genomewide data analysis have provided novel insight into understanding the molecular pathogenesis of biliary tract cancers, thereby identifying potential biomarkers for clinical use. We herein review available GBC biomarkers and the potential clinical implications in the management of GBC.
Montalvo-Jave, EE; Rahnemai-Azar, AA; Papaconstantinou, D; Deloiza, ME; Tsilimigras, DI; Moris, D; Mendoza-Barrera, GE; Weber, SM; Pawlik, TM
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