Polymorphisms and evolutionary history of retrotransposon insertions in rice promoters.
Retrotransposons are ubiquitous in higher plant genomes. The presence or absence of retrotransposons in whole genome and high throughput genomic sequence (HTGS) from cultivated and wild rice was investigated to understand the organization and evolution of retrotransposon insertions in promoter regions. Approximately half of the Oryza sativa subsp. japonica 'Nipponbare' promoters with retrotransposons conserved in Oryza sativa subsp. indica '93-11' and four wild rice species showed higher sequence conservation in retrotransposon than nonretrotransposon regions. We further investigated, in detail, the evolutionary dynamics of five retrotransposons in the promoter regions of 95 rice genotypes. Our data suggest that four of five insertions (Rp2-Rp5) occurred in the ancestor of AA genome, while the other insertion (Rp1) predates the ancestral divergence of Oryza officinalis (CC genome). Four retrotransposons (Rp2-Rp5) were present in 52% (Rp2), 29% (Rp3), 53% (Rp4), and 43% (Rp5) of the rice genotypes with AA genome type, and the fifth retrotransposon (Rp1) was present in 95% of the rice genotypes with AA, BBCC, or CC genome types. Furthermore, most of these retrotransposons were found to evolve slower than flanking promoter regions, suggesting a role in promoter function for regulating downstream genes.
Xu, Z; Rafi, S; Ramakrishna, W
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